A new constitution was approved, setting up a parliamentary democracy. However, there exists no doubt that the political structure of the Etruscan culture was similar, albeit more aristocratic, to Magna Graecia in the south.  The so-called Italian economic miracle lasted almost uninterruptedly until the "Hot Autumn's" massive strikes and social unrest of 1969–70, that combined with the later 1973 oil crisis, gradually cooled the economy, that has never returned to its heady post-war growth rates.  The official name of Italy is the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana). Yet cultural contributions notwithstanding, some present-day historians also see the era as one of the beginning of economic regression for Italy (due to the opening up of the Atlantic trade routes and repeated foreign invasions) and of little progress in experimental science, which made its great leaps forward among Protestant culture in the 17th century. The Socialist party (PSI), led by Bettino Craxi, became more and more critical of the communists and of the Soviet Union; Craxi himself pushed in favour of US president Ronald Reagan's positioning of Pershing II missiles in Italy. After Pyrrhus of Epirus failed in his attempt to stop the spread of Roman hegemony in 282 BCE, the south fell under Roman domination and remained in such a position well into the barbarian invasions (the Gladiator War is a notable suspension of imperial control). In 1923, Mussolini's coalition passed the electoral Acerbo Law, which assigned two thirds of the seats to the party that achieved at least 25% of the vote. HistoryPod is a daily podcast that I began releasing in 2015. More than 51,000 people had died worldwide. Friction continued over the Catholic Action youth network, which Mussolini wanted to merge into his Fascist youth group. By Tim Lambert. ", Despite the defeat, Italian troops in El Alamein were internationally acclaimed. In the 14th century, Northern Italy and upper-central Italy were divided into a number of warring city-states, the most powerful being Milan, Florence, Pisa, Siena, Genoa, Ferrara, Mantua, Verona and Venice. The six founding countries are Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg and the Netherlands. , When the Treaty of London was announced in May 1915, there was an uproar from antiwar elements. In Turin and Milan, workers councils were formed and many factory occupations took place under the leadership of anarcho-syndicalists. Etruscans were a monogamous society that emphasized pairing. By 1950, the economy had largely stabilized and started booming. A brief historical timeline of Italy, including important dates and events from Italy’s past. (Note: Napoleon III, as a young man, fought on the side of the 'Carbonari'.). Other original elements of the Sardinian civilization include the temples known as "Sacred Pits", perhaps dedicated to the holy water related to the Moon and astronomical cycles, the Giants' graves, the Megaron temples, several structures for juridical and leisure functions, and some refined statuettes. [nb 1]. The Romans called the area of Sicily and the foot of Italy Magna Graecia (Latin, "Great Greece"), since it was densely inhabited by the Greeks. “Italy, 1793–1830" in C.W. The long Siege of Florence (1529–1530) brought the destruction of its suburbs, the ruin of its export business and the confiscation of its citizens' wealth. 75-Year History TOP > A 75-Year History through Data > Overall Chronological Table > 1867-1910; Overall Chronological Table.  In 1957, Italy was a founding member of the European Economic Community, which later transformed into the European Union (EU). Eventually, after years of inconclusive fighting, with the Peace of Cateau-Cambrésis (1559) France renounced all its claims in Italy thus inaugurating a long Habsburg hegemony over the Peninsula. , At the time, the struggle for Italian unification was perceived to be waged primarily against the Austrian Empire and the Habsburgs, since they directly controlled the predominantly Italian-speaking northeastern part of present-day Italy and were the single most powerful force against unification. The War of the Spanish Succession (1701–1714) was triggered by the death without issue of the last Habsburg king of Spain, Charles II, who fixed the entire Spanish inheritance on Philip, Duke of Anjou, the second grandson of King Louis XIV of France. The first European to arrive in the area was Christopher Columbus and the first to make landfall was Ponce de Leon who landed at Florida. Napoleon conquered most of Italy in the name of the French Revolution in 1797–99. Second was a profound disillusionment after the heavy losses of the First World War. The first government of Depretis collapsed after his dismissal of his Interior Minister, and ended with his resignation in 1877. The nuraghe towers are unanimously considered the best-preserved and largest megalithic remains in Europe. The mercenaries were not willing to risk their lives unduly, and war became one largely of sieges and maneuvering, occasioning few pitched battles. The General Elections of 1946, held at the same time as the Constitutional Referendum, elected 556 members of a Constituent Assembly, of which 207 were Christian Democrats, 115 Socialists and 104 Communists. The Church especially endorsed foreign policies such as support for the anti-Communist side in the Spanish Civil War, and support for the conquest of Ethiopia. Subsequently, beating off Austrian counterattacks and continuing to advance, he arrived in the Veneto in 1797. Genoa the city became a republic while its hinterland became the Ligurian Republic. Facing a new Lombard offensive, the Papacy appealed to the Franks for aid.. 88, . A History of Rome with a Map of Italy and Ample Chronological Table: Schmitz, Leonhard: Amazon.sg: Books The Celtiberian stronghold of Numantia became the centre of Spanish resistance to Rome in the 140s and 130s BCE. The Concordat of 1929 made Catholicism the sole religion of the state (although other religions were tolerated), paid salaries to priests and bishops, recognized church marriages (previously couples had to have a civil ceremony), and brought religious instruction into the public schools. Under Augustus's rule, Roman literature grew steadily in the Golden Age of Latin Literature. Mussolini felt obliged to sign the pact in spite of his own concerns that Italy could not fight a war in the near future. The elections in 2006 returned Prodi in government, leading an all-encompassing centre-left coalition of 11 parties (The Union).  Garibaldi led the Italian republican drive for unification in southern Italy, but the northern Italian monarchy of the House of Savoy in the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia whose government was led by Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour, also had the ambition of establishing a united Italian state. Where’s it From? The legendary founding date of Rome. Tolkien and his hobbits. , By the late Middle Ages, central and southern Italy, once the heartland of the Roman Empire and Magna Graecia respectively, was far poorer than the north. The maritime republics, especially Venice and Genoa, soon became Europe's main gateways to trade with the East, establishing colonies as far as the Black Sea and often controlling most of the trade with the Byzantine Empire and the Islamic Mediterranean world. Famous assassinations in history. The presence of the Etruscan people in Etruria is attested by their own inscriptions, dated about 700 bce; it is widely believed, however, that the Etruscans were present in Italy before this time and that the prehistoric Iron Age culture called “ Villanovan ” (9th–8th century bce) is actually an early phase of Etruscan civilization. The foreign invasions of Italy known as the Italian Wars began with the 1494 invasion by France that wreaked widespread devastation on Northern Italy and ended the independence of many of the city-states. La biblioteca di Repubblica, 2004. pp.349, Michael Broers, "Revolution as Vendetta: Patriotism in Piedmont, 1794–1821. As traditionally the oldest form of Christianity, along with the ancient or first millennial Eastern Orthodox Church, the non-Chalcedonian or Oriental Churches, and the Church of the East, the history of the Catholic Church is integral to the history of Christianity as a whole. It then spread south, having an especially significant impact on Rome, which was largely rebuilt by the Renaissance popes. How Italian society built mechanisms to adapt, translate, resist, and domesticate this challenge had a lasting effect on the nation's development over the subsequent decades. Both radical and conservative forces in the Italian parliament demanded that the government investigate how to improve agriculture in Italy. Some small towns in the 6th century BCE have disappeared during this time, ostensibly consumed by greater, more powerful neighbors. He shared circles with expressionists and other Finally, De Gasperi supervised the transition to a Republic following the abdication of Vittorio Emanuele III on 9 May 1946, the one-month-long reign of his son Umberto II ("King of May") and the Constitutional Referendum that abolished the monarchy; De Gasperi briefly became acting Head of State as well as Prime Minister on 18 June 1946, but ceded the former role to Provisional President Enrico de Nicola ten days later. Mercenaries were also a constant threat to their employers; if not paid, they often turned on their patron. Alessandra Diazzi and Alvise Sforza Tarabochia, Richard Drake, "Italy in the 1960s: A Legacy of Terrorism and Liberation. Rural folk saw war is a disaster, like drought, famine or plague. " James Sadkovich gives the most charitable interpretation of Italian failures, blaming inferior equipment, overextension, and inter-service rivalries. Scholars typically divide Byzantine history into three major periods: Early Byzantium , Middle Byzantium , and Late Byzantium .  In summer 1940, Mussolini ordered the bombing of Mandatory Palestine and the conquest of British Somaliland. The Lateran Accord of 1929 was a treaty that recognized the pope as the sovereign of the tiny Vatican City inside Rome, which gave it independent status and made the Vatican an important hub of world diplomacy. Under the same pressure, the First Italian War of Independence was declared on Austria. This has made it an important land throughout world history. Some 650,000 Italian soldiers died and 950,000 were wounded, while the economy required large-scale Allied funding to survive. 1915 - Italy enters the First World War on side of Allies. MacGregor Knox says the explanation, "was first and foremost a failure of Italy's military culture and military institutions. The few independent city-states were also subdued. V. History of the Tartars and Persians, ... History of France continued, and of Italy. Other articles where History of Italy is discussed: Italy: Italy in the early Middle Ages: The Roman Empire was an international political system in which Italy was only a part, though an important part. In 1925, Italy forced Albania to become a de facto protectorate. Italy's political arena was sharply divided between broad camps of left and right which created frequent deadlock and attempts to preserve governments, which led to instances such as conservative Prime Minister Marco Minghetti enacting economic reforms to appease the opposition such as the nationalization of railways. As consequence, the country descended into civil war, with the Italian Co-belligerent Army and the resistance movement, supported by the Allies, contended the Social Republic's forces and its German allies. For even more on Italy, check out these articles: Christian Eilers is a travel and career advice writer who constantly loves to learn about the world through traveling, cultural stories, reading, and education.  Defeated at Paris on 6 April 1814, Napoleon was compelled to renounce his throne and sent into exile on Elba. Riparo Mochi (Italy). ", Antonio Carlo, "Against the 'Southern Question'" (1974), Luigi Tomassini, "Industrial Mobilization and the labour market in Italy during the First World War,", The Fascist Experience by Edward R. Tannenbaum, p. 22, James J. Sadkovich, "Understanding Defeat: Reappraising Italy's Role in World War II,", Jon E. Lewis (1999), The Mammoth Book of True War Stories, p. 318, Francesca Fauri, "The Role of Fiat in the Development of the Italian Car Industry in the 1950s". Two prominent radical figures in the unification movement were Giuseppe Mazzini and Giuseppe Garibaldi. The Kingdom of Sicily would last under various dynasties until the 19th century. Belgium and Piedmont became integral parts of France.. Rao, Anna Maria. Interactive World History Atlas since 3000 BC Follow us World History Maps & Timelines. In treating of the earliest Mstory of Rome, we must bearin mind that we are dealing with mere legends, as is thecase … The Roman Republic then unified Italy at the expense of the Etruscans, Celts, and Greeks of the peninsula. Generally speaking, Proto-Villanovan settlements were centered in the northern-central part of the peninsula. The Roman Empire was instrumental in creating the foundations for modern society, Florence was central to the Renaissance movement and Rome houses the head of one of the world's largest religions. The Renaissance was so called because it was a "rebirth" not only of economy and urbanization, but also of arts and science. 1814 to 1861: Risorgimento; working towards a unified Italy 1861 to 1922: Italian Monarchy 1922 to 1945: Mussolini, fascism and WW2 1945 to today: Italian republic Top ten dates in Italian History (in chronological order) 1. This is shown by numerous remains contained in the nuraghe, such as amber coming from the Baltic Sea, small bronzes portraying African apes and animals, Oxhide ingots and weapons from Eastern Mediterranean, Mycenaean ceramics. With the main working-class Socialist party reluctant to support the war effort, strikes were frequent and cooperation was minimal, especially in the Socialist strongholds of Piedmont and Lombardy. Crispi's major concerns before during 1887–91 was protecting Italy from Austria-Hungary. Caesar reconciled the two more powerful men in Rome: Marcus Licinius Crassus, his sponsor, and Crassus' rival, Pompey. While helping Italy develop strategically, he continued trasformismo and was authoritarian, once suggesting the use of martial law to ban opposition parties. He set up a series of new republics, complete with new codes of law and abolition of old feudal privileges. According to the founding myth of Rome, the city was founded on 21 April 753 BCE by twin brothers Romulus and Remus, who descended from the Trojan prince Aeneas and who were grandsons of the Latin King, Numitor of Alba Longa. The Fascists rejected Giolitti's offers and joined with socialists in bringing down his government.. The 1994 elections also swept media magnate Silvio Berlusconi (leader of "Pole of Freedoms" coalition) into office as Prime Minister. This led to the loss of their north provinces. 15th-century writers such as the poet Poliziano and the Platonist philosopher Marsilio Ficino made extensive translations from both Latin and Greek. The King was forced to choose which of the two rival movements in Italy would form the government: Mussolini's Fascists, or the marxist Italian Socialist Party. Public appearances and propaganda constantly portrayed the closeness of Mussolini and Hitler and the similarities between Italian Fascism and German National Socialism. The Carbonari condemned Napoleon III to death for failing to unite Italy, and the group almost succeeded in assassinating him in 1858. All of these features contributed to the success of the city. III. In 1947, under American pressure, the communists were expelled from the government. Carpanetto, Dino, and Giuseppe Ricuperati. View Toyota Motor Corporation's 75-year history through the Overall Chronological Table. CHAPTER I. It is estimated that between September 1943 and April 1945 some 60,000 Allied and 50,000 German soldiers died in Italy. As the Allies advanced north, they encountered increasingly difficult terrain, as mountains offered excellent defensive position to Axis forces. This new Italian monarchy lasted for less than 90 years, ousted by a referendum in 1946 when a slim majority voted for the creation of a republic. It took control of Somalia and Eritrea. The pope at the time, Pius IX, feared that giving up power in the region could mean the persecution of Italian Catholics.. ", Donald Sassoon, "Tangentopoli or the democratization of corruption: Considerations on the end of Italy's first republic. The ancient geographers differed on whether the term included Sicily or merely Apulia, Campania and Calabria—Strabo being the most prominent advocate of the wider definitions. Italy Timeline. These included the increase of Papal power in the peninsula and the influence of Roman Catholic Church at the peak of the Counter Reformation, the Catholic reaction against the Protestant Reformation. in Gordon Martel ed, Martin, J. and Romano, D., Venice Reconsidered, Baltimore, Johns Hopkins University, 2000, Stéphane Barry and Norbert Gualde, "The Biggest Epidemics of History"-La plus grande épidémie de l'histoire, in L'Histoire n°310, June 2006, pp.45–46, harvcoltxt error: no target: CITEREFBireley1990 (, Although he makes many references to classical sources, these references do not include the customary deference to, harvcoltxt error: no target: CITEREFStrauss1958 (, Dalle grandi rivoluzioni alla Restaurazione. Parliamentary democracy developed considerably in the 19th century. .80 CHAPTER VIIL From the Time of the Gracchi down to the First War against Mithradates, B.C. In 1928, all political parties were banned, and parliamentary elections were replaced by plebiscites in which the Grand Council of Fascism nominated a single list of 400 candidates. The government imposed high wage scales, as well as collective bargaining and insurance schemes. Letta's cabinet lasted until 22 February 2014 (for a total of 300 days), as the government fell apart after the Democratic Party retired its support of Letta in favour of Matteo Renzi, the 39-year-old mayor of Florence and nicknamed "Il Rottamatore" (The scrapper), who succeeded Letta as Prime Minister at the head of a new government with three centre parties, New Centre-Right, Civic Choice and Union of the Centre. The Etruscan religion was an immanent polytheism, in which all visible phenomena were considered to be a manifestation of divine power, and deities continually acted in the world of men and could, by human action or inaction, be dissuaded against or persuaded in favor of human affairs. The victory against Austria allowed Italy to annex Venice. The North was under indirect rule of the Austrian Habsburgs in their positions as Holy Roman Emperors, and the south was under direct rule of the Spanish branch of the Habsburgs. The World Digital Library provides free access to manuscripts, rare books, maps, photographs, and other important cultural documents from all countries and cultures, in Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Portuguese, Russian and Spanish. Following Antony's Donations of Alexandria, which gave to Cleopatra the title of "Queen of Kings", and to their children the regal titles to the newly conquered Eastern territories, the war between Octavian and Mark Antony broke out.  The Triple Alliance meant little either to Italians or Austrians – Vienna had declared war on Serbia without consulting Rome. "Political History in Italy,". In 1809, Bonaparte occupied Rome, for contrasts with the pope, who had excommunicated him, and to maintain his own state efficiently, exiling the Pope first to Savona and then to France. Hesitance remained from the King and military commander Pietro Badoglio who warned Mussolini that Italy had too few tanks, armoured vehicles, and aircraft available to be able to carry out a long-term war and Badoglio told Mussolini "It is suicide" for Italy to get involved in the European conflict. 1915 – Italy Joins Allies During World War I, 1929 – Lateran Treaty Creates Vatican City. When Germany invaded Poland on 1 September 1939 beginning World War II, Mussolini chose to stay non-belligerent, although he declared his support for Hitler. Soccer History Timeline Chronological Overview. They set up colonies along the coast of southern Italy and on the island of Sicily. However, on the other hand, transportation was difficult, soil fertility was low with extensive erosion, deforestation was severe, many businesses could stay open only because of high protective tariffs, large estates were often poorly managed, most peasants had only very small plots, and there was chronic unemployment and high crime rates. The Remedello culture took over the Po Valley. About the same time in the 8th century BCE, a small agricultural community was forming on the west coast of Italy. 750 BCE - 510 BCE. The Socialist Party became the main political party, outclassing the traditional liberal and conservative organisations. The second government of Depretis started in 1881. Parties, Guelfs and Ghibellines the homeland of the Etruscans italy history chronological probably an indigenous population politicians, and his... 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